lunes, 15 de marzo de 2010

Denali Natural Park in

Alaska (USA)

The Denali Natural Park is situated in Alaska, USA.

Denali, in the native language of Athabaskan, means “ The high one “. The name of his most higher mountain is Mt. McKinley, because he was the president in 1897.

Situation of the Natural Park.

The ecosystem is made of tundra and deciduous forest. Most part of the year is cold, and in summer the weather is normal, but not hot, winter is the longest season in this park.

The highest mountain is the Mt.McKinley, with 6.129 metres. Is the highest granitic pluton in the world. The majority of the rest of the mountains and rocks in the park are sedimentary.

In the park, there are also glaciers that covered the landscape, with an expanded tundra dotted containing small lakes and ponds.

At lower elevations, in the rivers valleys, the boreal forest, a mix of spruce, aspen and birch forest, winds its way up into the valleys or rivers corridors.

The interior part of the mountains, have complex and diverse habitats that depending from the variation of elevation, slope and exposure to the environment.

The Flora of the Natural Park

Denali’s (park) subarctic a lot of wilderness plants, more or less, there are 1.500 species of vascular plants, mosses and lichens.

The trees of the park, tend to thrive with sufficient warmth and nutrients, but only the trees that are near the rivers.

There are 3 species of trees that can be in the tundra ecosystem: black spruce, white spruce and larch.

There are 5 species of trees that can be in the deciduous forest ecosystem: quaking aspen, balsam poplar, black cottonwood, paper birch and Alaska birch.

The 3 species that can be in tundra ecosystem also can be on the deciduous forest ecosystem.

Shrubs are also woody plants, but shorter than trees, and have multiple stems that are shorter than the simple one.

This type of plant is very abundant in this natural park, most of them are in frequent areas along the park.

The Fauna of the Natural Park

Denali Natural Park have diversity of wildlife. There are 39 species of mammals, 167 species of birds, 10 species of fish, one species of amphibian and any species of reptiles.

During the winter, the bears hibernate, the 80% of the birds migrate and the rest of the animal survive normally. The spring brings the bears, the birds return to the park, and the wildlife increase in the park. In this season of the year, the bull moose gather their harems of cows for the mating season.

In the year 1980, hunting was permitted, so most of the animals refugee, this moment was important for predactors ( wolves,foxes, lynx etc) because the animals were together so they can prey easier.

Later, scientist laboratories stop the hunting, because they want to see how animals adapted to the climate or is history on the park.

The most common amphibian in this park is the wood frog, a small frog with only 2 centimetres long.

Some mammals of the park are: wolves, foxes, lynx (are predactors) bears, dall sheep, bull moose, beaver and moose.

Some birds of the park are: harlequin duck, grosbeaks, mixed flocks of ptarmigan, gyrfalcon and goshawk.

The only amphibian you can find in the park is the wood frog.

The Environmental Factors of the Natural Park

- Air Quality: In the Natural Park. The air is exceptionally clean, and there is spectacular views of the Alaska Range because is out of clouds. Consistently has some of the best visibility along the country. Each year, small but measurable amounts of pollution come to Alaska from Europe and Asia. Frequently, these pollution come from power plants or other industrial sources.

- Fire Regime: the resources to be protected and the exclusion of fire may be harmful to the fire dependent of ecosystem. In this park, the fire is mainly appears in the mountains because at lower altitudes, there are more precipitation. The principal administrations strategies protect humans and specific resources or endangered species of animals.

- Geology Activity: Because the plate tectonics, seism or earthquakes are frequent in this area, there are a lot of seismics along the year, but the 70% not reach the 1.5 magnitude.

- Weather: This park has the 2 principal weather in Alaska, there are transitional maritime zone south os Alaska Range and the continental zone in the interior region, north of the range. In summer, the temperature is mainly hot, and in winter, cold. The north of the park is characterised by the less precipitation, and in the south, abundant but not so much. Climate has a dominant ecology in the park.

Created by: Marcos Alberca, Raul Contreras, Javier Naranjo y Daniel Ulman. 2ºC

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