jueves, 11 de marzo de 2010

The amazon rain forest



TYPE OF ECOSISTEM THAT IT REPRESENTS


The Amazon rainforest, also known as Amazonia or the Amazon jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest ( temperate forest) that covers most of the Amazon Basin of South America. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. Tropical and subtropical forests regions with low rainfall are home to tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests and tropical and subtropical coniferous forests. Temperate rain forests also occur in certain humid temperate coastal regions.

BIOTOPE

The Amazon Rainforest is located in the upper section of Brazil south of the Equator. The Amazon River is located 2 to 4 degrees south of the Equator.

This region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, and with minor amounts in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana States or departments in four nations bear the name Amazonas after it. The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, and it comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world.

Geography

The geography its flat, low and its covered by savanna, and jungles interrupted by low mountains.

Temprature and precipitations

The tropical rain forest is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. An average of 50 to 260 inches (125 to 660 cm.) of rain falls yearly.

Rain forests belong to the tropical wet climate group. The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 °F (34 °C) or drops below 68 °F (20 °C); average humidity is between 77 and 88%; rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year. There is usually a brief season of less rain. In monsoonal areas, there is a real dry season. Almost all rain forests lie near the equator.

BIOCENOSIS

The Amazon Rainforest is the largest collection of living plants and animals species in the world.

The diversity of plant species is the highest on Earth,one square kilometer may contain over 75,000 typpes of trees and 150,000 species of higher plants..

The green leaf are of plants and trees in the rainforest varies by about 25% as a result of seasonal changes.Leaves expand during dry season an then undergo absciccion in the cloudy wet season.These changes provide a balance of carbon between photosynthesis and respiration.

The rainforest contain several animals.Among the largest predatory creatures are the Jaguar and Anaconda.In the river,there are electric eels that can kill you.There are also numerous parasites and diseases.



Also there are different species of birds like the macaw,the toucan.


There are some food chains in the Amazon Rainforest like:

The fruits of the plants are eaten by toucan,the toucan is eaten by a puma and the puma is eaten by a anaconda.

Small insects are eaten by tortugues,tortugues are eaten by a tiger,and the tiger is eaten by a jaguar.


IS THIS PLACE THREATENED BY HUMANS?


The rubber fever

In the decade of 1880 the region of Napo from Coca to the south and especially in the areas of the rivers Curarai,Villano and Tiputini begins to be dominated by the rubber fever. This product begins to be comercialized by big companies, adventurers and traders that commit abuses to the natives.

The oil

The 15 of february the well of Lago Agrio number 1 started the production of oil in the Ecuatorian Amazon rain forest transforming it in the principal region of the country that produces energetic and economical resources.Since the midle of 1986 more than 1.070 millions of oil barrels have been extract from the Amazon rain forest.

Oil extraction cosecuences

The phaces of the oil industry: extraction, production, transport, storage and comercialization have directly and undirectly incided in the fisical-chemical, biological, social-economical and cultural aspects where they have place.So, the air and water polution have brought not only the alteration and the destruction of the flora and the fauna, but negatively affected the life forms that are opossit to the habitat conservation.

Deforestation

Between May 2000 and August 2006, Brazil lost nearly 150,000 square kilometers of forest—an area larger than Greece—and since 1970, over 600,000 square kilometers (232,000 square miles) of Amazon rainforest have been destroyed.

In many tropical countries, the majority of deforestation results from the actions of poor subsistence cultivators. However, in Brazil only about one-third of recent defore

station can be linked to "shifted" cultivators. Historically a large portion of deforestation in Brazil can be attributed to land clearing for pastureland by commercial and speculative interests, misguided government policies, inappropriate World Bank projects, and commercial exploitation of forest resources.

Here is an example of deforestation:


By:

Celia Pastor, Alejandra Fernandez, Ainhoa Rivilla and Laura Barbadillo

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