lunes, 15 de marzo de 2010

Denali Natural Park in


Alaska (USA)







The Denali Natural Park is situated in Alaska, USA.

Denali, in the native language of Athabaskan, means “ The high one “. The name of his most higher mountain is Mt. McKinley, because he was the president in 1897.

















Situation of the Natural Park.


The ecosystem is made of tundra and deciduous forest. Most part of the year is cold, and in summer the weather is normal, but not hot, winter is the longest season in this park.



The highest mountain is the Mt.McKinley, with 6.129 metres. Is the highest granitic pluton in the world. The majority of the rest of the mountains and rocks in the park are sedimentary.







In the park, there are also glaciers that covered the landscape, with an expanded tundra dotted containing small lakes and ponds.

At lower elevations, in the rivers valleys, the boreal forest, a mix of spruce, aspen and birch forest, winds its way up into the valleys or rivers corridors.

The interior part of the mountains, have complex and diverse habitats that depending from the variation of elevation, slope and exposure to the environment.





The Flora of the Natural Park






Denali’s (park) subarctic a lot of wilderness plants, more or less, there are 1.500 species of vascular plants, mosses and lichens.


The trees of the park, tend to thrive with sufficient warmth and nutrients, but only the trees that are near the rivers.

There are 3 species of trees that can be in the tundra ecosystem: black spruce, white spruce and larch.

There are 5 species of trees that can be in the deciduous forest ecosystem: quaking aspen, balsam poplar, black cottonwood, paper birch and Alaska birch.

The 3 species that can be in tundra ecosystem also can be on the deciduous forest ecosystem.

Shrubs are also woody plants, but shorter than trees, and have multiple stems that are shorter than the simple one.

This type of plant is very abundant in this natural park, most of them are in frequent areas along the park.






The Fauna of the Natural Park






Denali Natural Park have diversity of wildlife. There are 39 species of mammals, 167 species of birds, 10 species of fish, one species of amphibian and any species of reptiles.

During the winter, the bears hibernate, the 80% of the birds migrate and the rest of the animal survive normally. The spring brings the bears, the birds return to the park, and the wildlife increase in the park. In this season of the year, the bull moose gather their harems of cows for the mating season.

In the year 1980, hunting was permitted, so most of the animals refugee, this moment was important for predactors ( wolves,foxes, lynx etc) because the animals were together so they can prey easier.

Later, scientist laboratories stop the hunting, because they want to see how animals adapted to the climate or is history on the park.

The most common amphibian in this park is the wood frog, a small frog with only 2 centimetres long.

Some mammals of the park are: wolves, foxes, lynx (are predactors) bears, dall sheep, bull moose, beaver and moose.

Some birds of the park are: harlequin duck, grosbeaks, mixed flocks of ptarmigan, gyrfalcon and goshawk.

The only amphibian you can find in the park is the wood frog.






The Environmental Factors of the Natural Park






- Air Quality: In the Natural Park. The air is exceptionally clean, and there is spectacular views of the Alaska Range because is out of clouds. Consistently has some of the best visibility along the country. Each year, small but measurable amounts of pollution come to Alaska from Europe and Asia. Frequently, these pollution come from power plants or other industrial sources.

- Fire Regime: the resources to be protected and the exclusion of fire may be harmful to the fire dependent of ecosystem. In this park, the fire is mainly appears in the mountains because at lower altitudes, there are more precipitation. The principal administrations strategies protect humans and specific resources or endangered species of animals.

- Geology Activity: Because the plate tectonics, seism or earthquakes are frequent in this area, there are a lot of seismics along the year, but the 70% not reach the 1.5 magnitude.

- Weather: This park has the 2 principal weather in Alaska, there are transitional maritime zone south os Alaska Range and the continental zone in the interior region, north of the range. In summer, the temperature is mainly hot, and in winter, cold. The north of the park is characterised by the less precipitation, and in the south, abundant but not so much. Climate has a dominant ecology in the park.

Created by: Marcos Alberca, Raul Contreras, Javier Naranjo y Daniel Ulman. 2ºC

domingo, 14 de marzo de 2010

FOREST IN GALICIA AND ASTURIAS.

A forest is an area with a high density of trees. These plant communities cover large areas of the terraquean globe.They are one of the most important aspects of the biosphere of the Earth.

There are a lot of types of forests:

Temperate forestsTemperate deciduous forests and deciduousDry coniferous forestTemperate rainforest
Boreal forest

Forests are ecosystems essential for life. They are the habitat of many living beings.Human life has maintained a close relationship with the forest. Many cultures have relied on forest products obtained: wood for use as fuel or construction, charcoal essential in the first iron industry, hunting, resins, fruits, medicines, etc..
The type of ecosystem represents is temperate decidious forests, so we are going to talk a litte
bit about temperate decidious forests.
TEMPERATE DECIDIOUS FORESTS.
The climate in temperate zones is highly variable, with four well-defined seasons and the alternation of rain, dry spells, storms, etc. Rainfall varies between 500 and 1000 mm per year.

VEGETATIONThe species of trees that form the forest are many. Beeches and oak trees, with chestnut, hazel, maple, elm, etc. are most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula with also small buses such as roses, thistles, heather, etc.ANIMAL LIFEThe fauna is rich and varied. Many insects and other animals live in soil and feed a large number of birds. Also amphibians, reptiles and mammals are very abundant.

THE EURO- SIBERIAN REGIONThe Euro- Siiberian region is represented by the Atlantic zone. It is characterized by a humid climate, tempered by oceanic influence, with mild winters, cold and slightly
marked dry season.The vegetation is represented by deciduous oak trees and Carvallos. The mountain vegetation is beech and sometimes, fresh pine forests occupy the slopes. The Mediterranean influence is felt in the presence of oak trees.

OAK TREES.
The oak forests are the most characteristic areas of Asturias and Galicia. At the higher altitudes and climb mountains, the beeches are formed.
Apart of the oak trees the chesnuts and birchs also appeared there.

GALICIA.

Talk about wildlife in Galicia is stayed in another dimenssion. Galicia has a lot of forests, lakes, rivers, hills...with a lot of different plants and animals, and also a lot of diving living beings.

The Galician climate is the best one for the creation of forestal mass. These type of landscape have a lot of trees, these trees have mre than a houndred of years, that converted in a authentic wooden museum.
The characterisitics of each zone depend on a lot of factors tah created a great amount of forests with different types of plants, but the biggest family is the family of the oak trees, especially the CARBALLO. Obviously this is the habitat of a lot of animals. Some natural spaces to see are the Natural Park of Las Fragas do Eume and.........

The tipical Galician forest is formed by different species of decidious trees, like the oak tree and the chestnuts. These last yeras these trees have been in danger of extintion because of the human actions. That is why now the forests in Galicia are mainly formed by pines and eucalipt trees.

About the vegetation without trees, the most extensive formation is formed by the atlantic cliamte, formed by bushes, like the gorse, heather, broom and carquexia.
The fauna is mainly formed by the squirrels, foxes, wolfes... and also a big variety of fishes, and small living beings.

ASTURIAS
The general climate in Asturias is oceanic, with abundant rainfall spread throughout the year and mild temperatures in both winter and summer. The coastal climate, is really influenced by the sea, another climate in the South West of Asturias, with a climate more continental, although the climate of the central strip is oceanic, but is less influenced by the sea than in the coast, and the mountain climate in all regions of the Cantabrian mountain range, with importants snowfall, which may begin in October and extended until May.

The varied flora of the mountains is matched by a large fauna, the arbutus, the ash, the holly and the beech, there are also a lot different types of birds, such as the golden eagle that is in danger of extintion, the owls that are also in danger of extintion, the vultures, the Egiptian vultures, the common or peregrine falcons and the partridge, perhaps the richest of the peninsula. Here are several species of ungulates, and the biggest population of brown bears. We can also speak of the wolf, fox, bobcat, and a wide variety of birds. With regard to predators, here is the most complete representation of predators in Europe.
The main predators that live there are: brown bears, wolf, wild boar, bobcat, chamois and deers.
Asturias is the montainous and coastal community which has a lot of Natural or National parks and reserves, like the National Park Los picos De Europa and the Muniellos´ Forest.

NATURAL PARKS IN GALICIA.

There are many parks in Galicia but we have chosen only one.

NATURAL PARK OF LAS FRAGAS DO EUME.

Types of Protection: Natural Park.Location: In the province of A Coruña, between the towns of Cabanas, A Capela, Monfero and Pontedeume.The river Eume is one of the thousand rivers that make up the geography of Galicia. However, the shelter of the valley gunpoint shaped by the passage of centuries, took refuge one of the best preserved Atlantic forests of Europe. The Atlantic forest, the temperate influence accondicionated to the ocean, possibly covered most of Galicia, is now reduced to few but significant pockets where high humidity and mild temperatures resulted in the development of different species.What to see: The landscape is dominated by the steep river canyon that makes up an impressive Eume corridor almost twenty kilometers of semi-natural forests, the "Fragas" with the symbolic oak tree as the dominant species. They also highlight spectacular canyons with walls more than three hundred meters or depressions and the As Pontes de García Rodríguez.Climate: Oceanic with mild Clearly landlocked. Annual rainfall between 1400mm and 1900mm on the coast of the Sierra de la Loba, 700 meters high. T st half: 12 to 15 º C. Best season: autumn and spring.Flora: The dominant tree is the carballo, a type of oak tree, but there are also another types of trees such as, chestnut stand, birch, Freixa. The understory of shrub land is of great importance because it host some of the most emblematic bushes, such as woodwardia, a survivor of the ferns tha dominated million years ago the Mediterranean climate.
Wildlife: Abundant, diverse and unfortunately very difficult to surprise!. Wild cat, genet, sable, fox, owls, honey buzzard, nightjars, etc.. Some animals like the swift hawk
or otter are very difficult to see. Easier is the observation of dippers, kingfishers, squirrels, and many small mammals and birds typical of the forest.Cultural heritage: Inside the heart of the forest on a small hill, there are the ruins of a medieval monastery, Caaveiro, declared historical artistic monument. Near the park is another monastery, this time Baroque, Monfero.

Rutes: This Natural Park is threatended to humans, yoou can see the Natural Park, the Forest and also you can see the two monasteries that are inside the heart of the forest, but you have to look after the forest and take care you don´t through papers and things.

NATURAL PARKS IN ASTURIAS
There are many Natural Parks and Forests in Asturias but we have chosen only one.

FOREST OF MUNIELLOS

Type of proteccion: Natural reserve.

Location: Is located southwest of Asturias, and includes the mountains of Muniellos Valdebois and Viliella.
Surface: It covers an area of 5,600 hectares.
Only one road runs through the reserve, the Connio port that communicates with Ibias San Antolin. To visit, you must get a permit to the Ministry of Agriculture, only granting permission for up to 20 people a day.

Today is one of the best examples of deciduous forest, which once covered most of the area of Asturias. In Muniellos, the oak tree dominated on there, and of course on other species with which it shares the habitat, such as birch, chestnut, yew, holly etc ..., plus the reserve hosts a small group of bears browns that abound in these forests and also the nearby Monastery Hermo, and Degaña Ibias.
What to see: The landscape to see is dominated by the amount of oak trees.
If there is acharacterisitic feature of the ridge is the forest, a wet climate and not too cold causes beech, oak, birch, etc. .. have a great representation is these mountains.

Wildlife Refuge where it finds its food, and where it is also easy hide of human presence. The human beings used the forest without controll to obtain differet things. Respect the forest does not necessarily mean the abandonment of obtaining the resources that we provide, but use this in a rational and intelligent, the forest can give us much if we worry about maintaining it.
Climate: The predominated climate in the Cantabrian mountains is the Atlantic. It is characterized as very moist, mild and short summers which also produces precipitation. The snow is present in the coldest months of winter, although these may come to be rainfall in warmer months of spring. The mists are also abundant, although in this case is in the summer months when they occur frequently.

Flora: A lot of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds live in tis forest. A clare example is the deer that has spread to all the parts of the forest. There are a lot of types of birds but the most characteristic are: The grouse, the king of this frest, the black woodpecker, the ferresebes hawk, the goshawk, the woodpeckers, the picatuelos, the owls, etc...

Fauna: The fauna of the muniello´s forest is very similar to the fauna of the forests of Galicia, but there are some differences, there are a lot of foxes, brown bears, chamois, wolfs, otters, bobcats, mouses, common hares, Mostrar forma romanizada hedgehogs, moles, bats, salamanders, falcons, golden eagles and some more animals.

Rutes: This forest is threatended to humans, but there are a maximun per day, 20. There are a lot of rutes to do, passing through the forest between the oak trees and the beeches. But we have to look after the forest because if not it will disappeared.

.............

Map of Fragas Do Eume. Map of Muniellos.

...........................ooooooooooOoooooooooo..........................

Claudia Doral, María Morente, Leyre Poza and Marianna Vélez.






























viernes, 12 de marzo de 2010

Doñana National park

Doñana national park


Doñana is a protect zone that is situated in Andalusia.It has two tipes of ecosystems,a part of Doñana is a mediterranean forest and another part is a intertidal zone.Its marshes take refugee to many aquatic species at winter.It is a very important protect zone for Europe.


Biotope

-Geographical Location: It is situated in the sothwest of the Iberian Peninsula,between Huelva and Seville.




-Geology: Doñana is mainly formed by clay,limestone and sand that form dunes. -Climate: It has a mediterranean climate,it has humid winters and dry summers but temperatures are more ore less cool all the year.

-Temperatures and Precipitations along the Year: The most raining seasons are spring and especially autumn.In autumn torrential rainings are produced.At winter can appear thermal anticiclons.In summer they have three or five months of dryness.

Biocenosis

-Fauna
Birds: hawk, bee-eater, hoopoe, common sparrow, vulture, Bittern, Gadwall, mallard, widgeon, snipe, black-tailed godwit, imperial eagle, booted eagle, short-toed eagle, Bonelli's eagle, marsh harrier, marsh harrier, Montagu's pale, pelican, shrike, lark, greylag goose, Bean Goose, redshank, lapwing, avetorrillo, long-eared owl, griffon vulture, black vulture, thrush Tordal, teal, white stork, black stork, stilt, ringed plover, snowy plover, great cormorant, crow, cuckoo, spatula, crested coot, short-toed eagles, sandpipers, ruddy duck, quail, redstart, black redstart, merlin, black starling, starling, flamenco, coot, crested coot, Skeggþerna, Kolþerna, bargain common egret, squacco, herring gull, Audouin's Gull, Laughing Gull, Gull, Purple Heron, heron, common tern, Red-rumped swallow rock sparrow, house sparrow, tree sparrow, sparrow, jackdaw, honey buzzard, peregrine falcon, crested tit, tit, goldfinch, short-eared owl, barn owl, kingfisher, jack, black kite, red kite, common blackbird, ibis, common mosquito, cattle egrets, teals, bittern, little egret, white wagtail, yellow wagtail, mallard, common horned owl, bird bluebottle, woodcock, nightjar brown, doves, teals, spoon duck, robin, great spotted woodpecker, chaffinch, green woodpecker, moorhen, tufted, woodlark, little grebe, wood thrush I talk, song thrush, curlew, magpie, common swift, common bunting, oriole, nightingale bastard, common nightingale, little bustard, great crested grebe, white jar, pied flycatcher, spotted flycatcher, common flycatcher, tufted duck, tufted, ferruginous duck, Azure-winged Magpie, buzzard, common buzzard, common scoter, short-toed lark, tarabilla common merganser median firecrest, Curroc, lugano, Rail, Rock Bunting, reed bunting, ortega.


Mammals: deer, rabbit field, European hedgehog, deer, genet, wild cat, wild boar, Iberian lynx, dormouse, mongoose, bat, cave bat, greater horseshoe bat, rat bat, shrew, otter, mouse, polecat , fox, badger, water rat, black rat, small noctula








Fish: eel, carp, mosquito fish, pike.





Reptiles and Amphibians: Montpellier snake, snake necklace, snake, viper, ribbed, footed lizard, lizard drum, common frog, tree frog, porzana parsley frog, common toad, natterjack toad, toad, spurs, spur thighed tortoise, snub-nosed viper, Iberian newt, marbled newt, gecko, European pond turtle.




-Flora

Of special interest are species such as Vulpia fontquerana the Linaria tursica, juniper sea, the tuberous Micropyropsis the morsus Hydrocharis Thorella ranae or verticillatinundata, many great danger. In another sense they are working on eliminating autócnonas species like Eucalyptus, Acacia, the Gomphocarpus fruticosus, Nicotiana glauca or Carpobrotus edulis.Other notable species in the park, over 900 of which are recorded in Doñana ecosystems are: oleander, the cork oak, the wallflower of the sea, the Almajo sweet, pinchosa barilla, the marram grass, the heather, heather, dressing rooms, the lavender, sea thistle, reed, carnation, bulrushes, the bracken fern, the Jaguarzo, the rushes, the labiérnago, the sea spurge, mastic, the masiega, palm heart, the stone pine, the broom, broom, broom, rosemary, juniper, the gorse, thyme, spurge laurel and blackberry. Also, there are flowering plants such as lavender.



-Examples Of Trophic Chains:


1) Spanish Imperial Eagle -Europpean Rabbit-Grass.


2) Snake viper-Common Frog-Bettle-Grass.


3) Wild cat-Deer-Grass.


4) Fox-Mouse-Grass.



-Is this place threatened by humans?


POLLUTION:Until the analcollar mine the matural risks of these area has increase. Several impact studies and environmental groups repeatedly in a series of problems that threaten flora, fauna, water and soil. While the built-up and its various applications has been a problem over the years this is not the only problems associated .
-Impact of Infraestructure:There is a project to create a pipeline between Extremadura and Huelva that it will increase the number of oil tankers with the risk of forming oil spills.


-Alba Morán
-Lidia San Juan
-Yaiza Moreno
-Alba García



jueves, 11 de marzo de 2010

Yellowstone National Park




Type of ecosystem, geographical location:
It was established in 1872, Yellowstone Park is Amierca´s first national park the most popular. Located in Wyoming, Montana e Idazo. The Yellowstone was the first national park in the world. It has many types of ecosystems, but the subalpine forest is dominant.






Geology:

Yellowstone is at the northeatern en of the Snake River Plain, a great U.shaped arc through the mountains. The landscape of present-day Yellowstone National Park is the most recent manifestation of this hotspot below the crust of the Earth.


The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic system in North America, the caldera was formed by exceptionally large explosive eruptions.




Climate, temperatures and precipitation:

Yellowstone climate is greatly influenced by altitude, with lower elevations generally found to be warmer year round. The record high temperature was 37ºC in 2002, while the coldest temperature recorded is -54.4ºC in 1933. Buring the summer months of June through early September, daytimes are highs, normally from 21ºC to 27ºC, while nightime are lower, temperatures can go to below freezing- especially at higher altitudes. Summer afternoons are frequiently accompanied by thunderstorms.Winters in Yellowstone are very cold, with temperatures usually between -20ºC to -5ºC .


Rain and snow are possible in any month of the year. Tornadoes are strange; however in July 21, 1987, the most powerful tornadoe hit the Yellowstone National Park, that was called teton-Yellowstone tornado.






Flora:
Over 1.700 species of trees and other plants are native to the park. Another 170 species are considered to be exotic species and are non-native . For example:
  • Lodgepole Pine


  • Subalpine Fir


  • Engelmann Spruce


  • Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir


  • Whitebark Pine


  • Quaking Aspen and willows are the most common species of decidious trees.


  • Fungi



Fauna:


There almost 60 species of mammal in the park. Loke for example:


Endareged gray wolf, threatened lynks, grizzly bears, bison, black bear, elk, moose, mule deer, white-tailed deer, mountain goat, pronghorn, boghorn sheep and mountain lion


Eighteen species of fish live in Yellowstone , including the core range of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout.


In Yellowstone National Park there are also six species of reptiles, such us the painted turtle and four species of amphibians including the Boreal Chorus Frog.


311 species of birds live in Yellowstone National Park, like the common loon, harlequin duck, osprey, peregrine falcon, and the trumpeter swan



Tourism:


The Yellowstone National Park on one of the most famous parks in the U.S.A . Millions of people visit it each year. You can do several activities like for example canoening, and you can also make trips. Hunting is forbidden, however, you can practise fishing if you have an autorisation. You can´t practise alpinism and navigate through the rivers of the Park.



Members of the Group:


- Raquel Martinez


-Tania Rodriguez


-Rocio Gonzalez


-Maria Gonzalez


-Patricia Izquierdo



The amazon rain forest



TYPE OF ECOSISTEM THAT IT REPRESENTS


The Amazon rainforest, also known as Amazonia or the Amazon jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest ( temperate forest) that covers most of the Amazon Basin of South America. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. Tropical and subtropical forests regions with low rainfall are home to tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests and tropical and subtropical coniferous forests. Temperate rain forests also occur in certain humid temperate coastal regions.

BIOTOPE

The Amazon Rainforest is located in the upper section of Brazil south of the Equator. The Amazon River is located 2 to 4 degrees south of the Equator.

This region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, and with minor amounts in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana States or departments in four nations bear the name Amazonas after it. The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, and it comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world.

Geography

The geography its flat, low and its covered by savanna, and jungles interrupted by low mountains.

Temprature and precipitations

The tropical rain forest is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. An average of 50 to 260 inches (125 to 660 cm.) of rain falls yearly.

Rain forests belong to the tropical wet climate group. The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 °F (34 °C) or drops below 68 °F (20 °C); average humidity is between 77 and 88%; rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year. There is usually a brief season of less rain. In monsoonal areas, there is a real dry season. Almost all rain forests lie near the equator.

BIOCENOSIS

The Amazon Rainforest is the largest collection of living plants and animals species in the world.

The diversity of plant species is the highest on Earth,one square kilometer may contain over 75,000 typpes of trees and 150,000 species of higher plants..

The green leaf are of plants and trees in the rainforest varies by about 25% as a result of seasonal changes.Leaves expand during dry season an then undergo absciccion in the cloudy wet season.These changes provide a balance of carbon between photosynthesis and respiration.

The rainforest contain several animals.Among the largest predatory creatures are the Jaguar and Anaconda.In the river,there are electric eels that can kill you.There are also numerous parasites and diseases.



Also there are different species of birds like the macaw,the toucan.


There are some food chains in the Amazon Rainforest like:

The fruits of the plants are eaten by toucan,the toucan is eaten by a puma and the puma is eaten by a anaconda.

Small insects are eaten by tortugues,tortugues are eaten by a tiger,and the tiger is eaten by a jaguar.


IS THIS PLACE THREATENED BY HUMANS?


The rubber fever

In the decade of 1880 the region of Napo from Coca to the south and especially in the areas of the rivers Curarai,Villano and Tiputini begins to be dominated by the rubber fever. This product begins to be comercialized by big companies, adventurers and traders that commit abuses to the natives.

The oil

The 15 of february the well of Lago Agrio number 1 started the production of oil in the Ecuatorian Amazon rain forest transforming it in the principal region of the country that produces energetic and economical resources.Since the midle of 1986 more than 1.070 millions of oil barrels have been extract from the Amazon rain forest.

Oil extraction cosecuences

The phaces of the oil industry: extraction, production, transport, storage and comercialization have directly and undirectly incided in the fisical-chemical, biological, social-economical and cultural aspects where they have place.So, the air and water polution have brought not only the alteration and the destruction of the flora and the fauna, but negatively affected the life forms that are opossit to the habitat conservation.

Deforestation

Between May 2000 and August 2006, Brazil lost nearly 150,000 square kilometers of forest—an area larger than Greece—and since 1970, over 600,000 square kilometers (232,000 square miles) of Amazon rainforest have been destroyed.

In many tropical countries, the majority of deforestation results from the actions of poor subsistence cultivators. However, in Brazil only about one-third of recent defore

station can be linked to "shifted" cultivators. Historically a large portion of deforestation in Brazil can be attributed to land clearing for pastureland by commercial and speculative interests, misguided government policies, inappropriate World Bank projects, and commercial exploitation of forest resources.

Here is an example of deforestation:


By:

Celia Pastor, Alejandra Fernandez, Ainhoa Rivilla and Laura Barbadillo

The Savanna






Tipo de ecosistema



Una de sabana, o de sabana, es un ecosistema de pastizales se caracteriza por los árboles es lo Suficientemente pequeño o muy espaciados de modo que el dosel no se cierra.



Biotopo

A menudo se cree que las sabanas Característica muy espaciados, árboles dispersos, sin embargo, en muchas comunidades de Sabana de densidad de los arboles son mas altos y los árboles son más espaciados que Regularmente en las comunidades forestales. Las sabanas se caracterizan También por la disponibilidad de agua de temporada, con la Mayoría de las precipitaciones que se limita A UNA estación del año. Las Sabanas SE PUEDEN asociar con varios tipos de biomas. Las sabanas son vistos con frecuencia como una zona de transición, qué ocurre entre el bosque y el desierto o las praderas. Sabanas de CUBRIR EL 20% del planeta no Se incluyen los Océanos. El alcalde de La Cantidad de Savannah es en África.
Las ecorregiones de sabana son de varios tipos:

Tropicales y Subtropicales sabanas, se clasificarán con los pastizales tropicales y Subtropicales como los matorrales y pastizales tropicales y Subtropicales, sabanas y matorrales bioma. Las sabanas de África, incluido el Serengeti, famoso por su fauna, son típicos de este tipo.
Sabanas templados Mediados hijo de Sabanas de latitud, con veranos húmedos y los inviernos más secos. Se clasifican con sabanas y matorrales templados como las praderas templadas, sabanas y matorrales bioma.
Sabanas Mediterráneo A mediados de sabanas de la latitud en Las regiones de clima mediterráneo, con inviernos suaves y lluviosos y veranos secos y Calurosos, parte del bosque mediterráneo, bosques, matorrales y bioma. Las sabanas de roble de California, parte de la Chaparral y con inviernos suaves y lluviosos y veranos secos y Calurosos, parte del bosque mediterráneo, bosques, matorrales y bioma. Las sabanas de roble de California, parte de la chaparral y Bosques de California, Ecorregión, caen en esta categoría.
Sabanas inundadas son las sabanas que se inundan estacionalmente o Durante todo el año. Se clasifican con sabanas inundadas, como las praderas y sabanas inundadas bioma, qué ocurre principalmente en los trópicos y subtrópicos.
Las sabanas de alta montaña son las sabanas de altura, ubicado en Algunos puntos en torno a las Regiones de alta montaña del mundo, parte de los pastizales y matorrales de montaña bioma. Las sabanas de tierras altas de la Sabana Montes de Angola y la Ecoregión Bosques ejemplo un hijo.

Biocenosis

FAUNA
En el número y la variedad, la población de mamíferos ungulados de la sabana africana, es incomparable con otra Cualquier parte del mundo. Antílopes, jirafas y cebras pastar y pastar y son presa de leones y otros depredadores en las áreas en las que los animales "superior" ha sido sustituído por el hombre y sus animales domésticos.
Los insectos abundan en la temporada de lluvias, Cuando La Mayoría de anidación de aves, Mientras que los reptiles son mas activos Durante la sequía.




FLORA
Los árboles y las hierbas se Debe resistentes al fuego y la sequía igualmente, el número de especies de la vegetación no es grande, lo que Contrasta con el bosque. En el pintoresco acacias espinosas y África, árboles y otros arbustos, Abobo inmensa (Adansonia), Palmeras y el paisaje que Forman.
No es raro que una sola especie de hierba y árboles dominan grandes áreas. ¿Por qué traer sequías que provocan incendios Porque no Tienen las especies que no Pueden sobrevivir. Normalmente, estas Zonas Están compuestas de pastos, nombre común de una gran familia de plantas con flores.

AMENAZADOS POR LAS PERSONAS


Los cambios en el manejo del fuego
Las Sabanas Están sujetos incendios una regulares y el ecosistema parece ser el resultado de la Utilización humana de fuego. Por ejemplo, los nativos americanos Creó el Precolombino sabanas de América del Norte por la quema periódica donde plantas resistentes al fuego Fueron las especies Dominantes. Pino Baldíos en lugares dispersos de Nueva Jersey a la costa de Nueva Inglaterra son los restos de estas sabanas. La Quema Aborígenes parece haber sido responsable de la aparición generalizada de la Sabana las tropicales en Australia y Nueva Guinea, y sabanas en la India el hijo resultado de la Utilización del Fuego humanos. Las sabanas arbustivas maquis de la Región Mediterránea También Fueron creados y mantenidos por el fuego antropogénico.
Estos incendios Generalmente son confinada a la capa herbácea y hacen poco daño A LARGO PLAZO A LOS árboles maduros. Sin embargo, Estos incendios Sirven para matar o reprimir plantones de árboles, lo que Impide el Establecimiento de un dosel continuo de árboles que impidan el crecimiento de pastos más. Antes de las prácticas europeas Aborígenes uso de la tierra de asentamientos, incluido el fuego, la vegetación y La Influencia Pueden haber Mantenido, modificaciones en contra, la flora de sabana. Se ha sugerido por muchos autores que la quema Aborígenes creado un paisaje de sabana estructuralmente más abierto. La Quema Aborígenes Ciertamente Creó un mosaico de hábitats que la Diversidad Biológica Probablemente Aumentó y cambió la estructura de los bosques y la difusión geográfica de Numerosas Especies forestales. Se ha sugerido por muchos autores que con la Supresión o alteración de los Regímenes tradicionales de quema de sabanas, muchos Están Siendo sustituidos por bosques de matorrales y arbustos con estrato herbáceo poco.
El consumo de forraje por herbívoros introducidos en los bosques de sabana ha llevado A UNA Reducción en la Cantidad de combustible disponible para la combustión y como resultado de los incendios y menos más fresco. La introducción de leguminosas forrajeras exóticas tambien se ha llevado A UNA Reducción en La necesidad de quemar para Producir un color verde, Porque El crecimiento de las leguminosas de Mantener Altos niveles de nutrientes Durante todo el año, y DEBIDO A LOS Incendios Pueden Tener un Impacto negativo sobre las poblaciones de las leguminosas que provoca una Resistencia a arder.

Pastoreo y ramoneo de los animales
Roble de sabana, Estados Unidos,
Los tipos de bosques cerrados, como los bosques y las selvas tropicales de hoja ancha no Generalmente son pastoreo DEBIDO a la estructura cerrada se opone crecimiento de la hierba, Se ofrece pocas oportunidades para el pastoreo Y Por Tanto Se. En contraste, la estructura abierta de las sabanas Permite el crecimiento de un estrato herbáceo y Son comúnmente Utilizados para el pastoreo de ganado doméstico. Como resultado de la parte el alcalde de Las Sabanas del mundo han Experimentado cambios como resultado de pastoreo de ovejas, cabras y vacas, que van desde cambios en la composición de la Pastura a la Invasión de malezas leñosas.
De De la Eliminación de la hierba de pastoreo Afecta el componente de plantas leñosas de los sistemas de bosques en dos formas principales. Hierbas compiten con las plantas leñosas de agua en la capa superior del suelo y la Eliminación por el pastoreo de Reducir este efecto de la Competencia, el crecimiento de los Lo Que Podría Impulsar árboles. Además de este efecto la remoción de combustibles, tanto Reducir la intensidad y la frecuencia de los incendios que Pueden Controlar las especies de plantas leñosas. Los animales que pastan Puede Tener un efecto más directo sobre las plantas leñosas por el ramoneo de las especies leñosas aceptable. Hay pruebas de que las plantas leñosas desagradables Han Aumentado en condiciones de pastoreo en las sabanas. El pastoreo Promueve También la Propagación de las malezas en las sabanas de la Eliminación o Reducción de Normalmente las plantas que compiten con las malezas Potenciales e Impedir el establecimiento. Además de esto, el ganado y los caballos Están Implicados en la Propagación de las semillas de especies de malezas como el espinoso Acacia (Acacia nilotica) y Stylo (Stylosanthes spp.). Las alteraciones en la composición de especies de sabana provocada por el pastoreo Puede alterar La función del ecosistema, y se ven exacerbadas por el pastoreo excesivo y las prácticas deficientes de ordenación.
Los animales de pastoreo introducidos También Pueden afectar la condición física del suelo Mediante la compactación y la disolución del suelo ocasionada por las pezuñas de los animales y por los Efectos de la erosión ocasionada por la Eliminación de la cubierta vegetal protectora. Estos son probables Efectos Más de ocurrir en la tierra sometida una pastoreo repetido y pesado. Los efectos del exceso de existencias Un Hijo menudo peores en suelos de baja fertilidad y en las Zonas bajas de precipitaciones por Debajo de 500 mm, como la Mayoría de los nutrientes del suelo en estas Zonas tienden A Estar concentradas en la superficie MODO DE QUE CUALQUIER Movimiento de los suelos Puede LLEVAR A UNA tumbas Degradación. La alteración en la estructura del suelo y los Niveles de nutrientes Afecta a la Creación, crecimiento y supervivencia de las especies de plantas y, una vez Puede conducir su A UN cambio en la estructura del bosque y la composición.

Árbol de compensación
Grandes áreas de sabana han sido talados de los árboles, y este intercambio de información Continúa hoy en día. Por ejemplo, hasta hace poco 480.000 hectáreas de sabanas Fueron eliminadas Anualmente en Australia solamente principalmente para Mejorar la Producción de Pasto. Importantes Zonas de sabana han sido limpiadas de vegetación leñosa y gran parte de la zona Que Sigue Siendo hoy en día es la vegetación que ha sido perturbado por cualquiera de compensación o de adelgazamiento En algún momento en el pasado.
La Compensación es Llevada A Cabo por la industria de pastoreo en un intento de Aumentar la Cantidad y calidad de alimento disponible para el ganado y para Mejorar la Gestión de la ganadería. La Eliminación de los árboles de las tierras de sabana, elimina la Competencia por el agua de los pastos presentes, y conducir Pueden A UN Aumento de las Naciones Unidas cuatro dos veces en la producción de pastizales, Así como la Mejora de la calidad de los alimentos disponibles. Dado que la Capacidad de transporte de valores está estrechamente relacionada con el rendimiento del pasto no Puede haber grandes Beneficios Financieros de la Eliminación de los árboles. De La Eliminación de los arboles También ayuda a la Administración de pastoreo. Por ejemplo, en Regiones de pastoreo de ovejas de árboles y arbustos densos CUBRIR Los Puertos depredadores, provocando Pérdidas de existencias, Mientras Que La cubierta vegetal leñosa dificulta reunir tanto en ganado ovino y bovino áreas.
Un número de técnicas han sido empleadas para Eliminar o matar a las plantas leñosas en las sabanas. Los pastores tempranos utilizaron la tala y la extracción de un anillo de corteza y madera de albura, como un medio de limpieza del terreno. En la década de 1950 arboricides Adecuada para la inyección madre Fueron DESARROLLADOS. La guerra de maquinaria pesada Superávit se puso a disposicion, y Utilizados Estos Fueron, ya sea para empujar la madera, o para tirar con una cadena y la bola colgada entre dos máquinas. Estos dos nuevos métodos de control de la madera, junto con la Introducción y la Adopción generalizada de nuevos pastos varias gramíneas y leguminosas promovió Resurgimiento de las Naciones Unidas en la limpieza de los árboles. También el 1980 vio el lanzamiento de suelo aplicado arboricides, en particular, terbutiourón, Qué podría utilizarse cortar el pecado y la inyección de cada árbol individual.
En muchos Aspectos "artificiales" de Facilitación, en particular, tirar, imitación Los efectos del fuego y, en las sabanas adaptado a la Regeneración Después del fuego como la Mayoría de las Sabanas de hijo de Queensland, no hay una respuesta similar a la que Después del Fuego. Árbol de compensación en muchas comunidades de Sabana, Aunque Causando una drástica Reducción de área basal y la cobertura de copas deja un menudo un alto Porcentaje de plantas leñosas con vida, ya sea como plantas demasiado pequeñas para ser Afectados o como plantas Capaces de re -- - y de surgimiento y tubérculos y leñosos rotos y Tocones. Una población de plantas leñosas igual a la mitad o más del número original a menudo permanece Después de tirar de las comunidades de eucalipto, Aunque todos los árboles de más de 5 metros son arrancados por completo.

Especies de plantas exóticas
Un número de especies de plantas exóticas han sido introducidas en las sabanas de todo el mundo. Entre las especies de plantas leñosas Las tumbas son malas hierbas ambientales cuentos como la acacia espinosa (Acacia nilotica), Rubbervine (grandiflora Cryptostegia), el mezquite (Prosopis spp.), Gorilla (Lantana camara y montevidensis L.) y la pera espinosa ( Opuntia spp.) Una amplia de especies herbáceas También se han introducido "" "En Estos bosques, ya sea deliberada o accidentalmente, incluidas las comunidades de Rodas y otras especies de Chloris, pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris), hierba de cola de rata gigante ( Sporobolus pyramidalis) (hysteropherus parthenium Parthenium) y Stylos (Stylosanthes spp.) y otras leguminosas. Estas presentaciones Tienen el potencial de alterar significativamente la estructura y composición de las sabanas en todo el mundo, y ya lo han Hecho en muchas Zonas una Través de una serie de procesos que incluyen IVA la alteración del Régimen de incendios, el Aumento de la presión del pastoreo, que compite con la vegetación nativa y ocupando nichos ecológicos vacantes previamente.

El cambio climático
Existe la Posibilidad de que el cambio climático inducido por humanos en forma de Efecto Invernadero Puede provocar una alteración de la estructura y función de las sabanas. Algunos autores han sugerido que las sabanas y pastizales Aún Pueden ser mas susceptibles a la Invasión de plantas leñosas como resultado del efecto invernadero inducido por el Cambio Climático. Sin embargo, un caso reciente, se describen PARTICIPAN que de una imagen de Sabana Grande de su gama en detrimento de los bosques en respuesta a la variación del clima y similares existe el potencial para rápida, cambios dramáticos en la distribución de la vegetación como consecuencia del cambio climático mundial, especialmente en los ecotonos como las Sabanas de Manera a menudo Representan.

Nerea chapinal , Angee Silva, Jennyfer Moreira & Ana Gómez

KRUGER NATIONAL PARK


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GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

It cover 18.989 square kilometres and expand by 350 kilometres from north to south and 60 kilometres from east to west. In the eastern part and to the south of The Kruger National Park there are two South Africa provinces: Mpumalanga and Limpopo. In the northen part Zimbabwe is located and in the eastern part finds Mozambique.


TYPE OF ECOSYSTEM


It is a type of grassland ecosystem. The grassland ecosystem is dry, wet seasons and warm temperatures all the year. The temperature normally is about 23º C, with low precipitations.



BIOTOPE

The biotope in the Kruger National Park is like a warm savannah. The water relatively scanty.The temperature is hotter during the summer and with colder winters. The ground is fertile, is to say, it can be plant.


BIOCENOSIS

The flora in the Kruger national park is formed by the baobabs tree, the mopane tree, the marula tree, acacias and other 1982 types of plants.
BAOBAB TREE ; MOPANE TREE ; MARULA TREE ; ACACIA


There are 517 species of birds. Out of the 517 species of birds found at Kruger, 253 are residents, 117 non-breeming migrants and 147 nomads.

All the big five game animals are found at the Kruger National Park, which has more species of mammals than any other African Game Reserve about 147 species. The most important species of mammals are: African buffalos, African hunting dogs, black rhinoceros, white rhinoceros, burchell's zebras, bushbucks, cheetahs, commond eland, giraffes, greater kudus, hippopotamus, lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, elephants, waterbuck, blue wildebeest and impalas.

AFRICAN BUFFALOS; WHITE RHINOCEROS; SPOTTED HYENAS; ELEPHANTS


BLUE WILDEBEEST

In the Kruger National Park exist 120 species of reptiles, between them 5.001 Nile cocodriles, 52 species of fishes and 35 species of amphibians.

NILE COCODRILE


IS THIS PLACE THREATENED FOR HUMANS?

Yes, because it is the biggest estate of hunt fighter for South Africa.


MEMBERS OF THIS GROUP:
- Jennifer Moreira Guerrero
- Angie Silva
- Nerea Chapinal Romero
- Ana Gomez Abad